The stages of decay
- In the first stage, decay affects only the tooth enamel and there are no symptoms.
- In the second stage, decay also affects the dentine and can cause sensitivity to hot to cold or sweetness.
- In the third stage, it is called penetrating caries, and requires the devitalisation of the tooth (the pulp removed) because the tooth is very affected and the pulp has now become infected.
A complication of penetrating caries is the formation of granuloma that forms at the apex of the tooth. It is the body's defence to the penetration of bacteria into the body.
Granulomas can remain undetected for a long time or they become symptomatic, resulting in an abscess.
The stages of periodontal disease
- The first stage is gingivitis and plaque located at the crown of the tooth. There is only a slight loss of bone.
- In the second stage, the plaque and tartar deepens and there is greater bone loss.
- In the third stage, the bone loss is substantial and the tooth begins to fail.